Cat Diesel 3116 Models seem to have a problem with exhaust valves staying in one piece. Cat Diesels are built tough but do have a few weaknesses, the exhaust valve typically on #5 cylinder.
This engine was in the shop running and all of a sudden the top end started knocking, Houston we have a problem!
I removed the rocker arms and found a bent exhaust push rod on #5 while we got lucky and the injector tip was not damaged.
So off with it's head! I will keep posting as I go disassembling our 3116 Cat Diesel